From the glass door to the glass ceiling

Working Paper 2014-347


Using 2009 EU-SILC data for France, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, we decompose the gender wage gap for prime age workers. We adopt an age group approach to identify when and how the glass door and the glass ceiling effects arise and their persistency over time. The empirical results verify that the raw gender wage gap increases with age. In all considered countries, the glass ceiling effect is completely realized by the age of 30 and increases over time. French, Italian and British women have also to cope with the glass door as they enter the labor market.

Authors: Elena Dalla Chiara, Eleonora Matteazzi, Ilaria Petrarca.

Keywords: Gender wage gap, labor force participation, wage decomposition, glass ceiling, glass
JEL: C31, C49, J21, J24, J31, J71.